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Table of Contents

Understanding English Language Variation in U.S. Schools

By Anne H. Charity Hudley and Christine Mallinson

Series foreword by James Banks                                                                                              vii

Book foreword by William Labov                                                                                            xiii

Preface                                                                                                                                            xvii

Acknowledgments                                                                                                                       xix

Chapter 1. Valuable Voices                                                                                                  1

Language Variation

Language, Students, and Multicultural Education

Who We Are

What Educators Want to Know about Language Variation

Chapter 2. What is Standard English?                                                                        11

English Language Standards

Teaching Language Standards

Learning Language Standards

Some Features of School English

The Privilege of Standardized English

Chapter 3. Southern English: A Regional and Cultural Variety                     37

Defining the South

Language Variation in the South

Attitudes Toward Southern English

The Value of Southern Language and Culture

Features of Southern English

The Take-Away Message

Chapter 4. African American English: An Ethnic and Cultural Variety    69

The History of African American English

Attitudes Toward African American English

The Value of African American Language and Culture

Features of African American English

The Take-Away Message

Chapter 5. Assessment and Application                                                                     110

Testing Specific Populations

The Culture of Standardized Tests

The Language of Standardized Tests

Other Types of Assessment

Language-Centered Action Plans for Educators

Afterword by Walt Wolfram                                                                                                        143

References                                                                                                                                        145

About the Authors                                                                                                                          161

Index                                                                                                                                                 163

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